Dr Gareth Williams, Bangor University, joins the Bertarelli Programme in Marine Science coral reef expedition to BIOT to look at microbial communities in the water surrounding reefs in BIOT.
I’m scared of laboratory work at the best of times. In fact, during my PhD my supervisor effectively banned me from the lab after a rather nasty incident with a carcinogenic chemical, my hand, the lack of a glove, and a nonchalant attitude. Similarly, in an attempt to assist my wife in the lab during her PhD, I was rapidly demoted to labelling test tubes and even then I’m almost certain she re-did the labels once I had left.
It is safe to say that laboratory work, and the care and patience needed to succeed in the laboratory, is not my forte. Yet here I am, playing at being a microbial ecologist in the middle of the Indian Ocean under conditions far from ideal for sterile lab work. Two weeks ago my extremely patient wife was helping me construct a make shift microbial ecology laboratory in our kitchen and taking me through good lab practices in order to reduce contamination. Now I have the same set-up and am trying to enforce the same good lab practices within a container on the back deck of a 70m ship designed for providing aid to oil rigs in distress in the North Sea.
My goal is to describe and measure the microbial communities living in the water surrounding the reefs of the Chagos Archipelago. Microbes are an extremely interesting group of organisms; who they are and what they are doing can offer valuable insight into the health of a coral reef. So the challenge emerges, how to piece together the conditions needed to carry out careful, sterile, preferably cold microbial lab work on an oily ship in 40°C heat of the tropics?
Step 1: Find somewhere cold to store samples.
The ship’s cook kindly agreed to allow me to store things in his walk in fridge, as long as they are properly contained and away from food.
Step 2: Find a way to freeze samples, sometimes quickly.
Fortunately, our liquid nitrogen survived the warm transport ship crossing to meet our vessel. This, combined with access to the back deck walk in freezer container, allows me to quickly freeze samples and store them safely.
Step 3: Turn a deck container into a somewhat sterile environment.
... A deck container that has been sweltering and rotting in the heat of the tropics for the best part of a year. This requires ethanol… lots of ethanol, a cloth, and some good old fashioned elbow grease. Problem solved, as long as I repeat this process on an almost daily basis.
Step 4: Collect microbes!
I currently spend days diving in the crystal clear waters of some of the most remote coral reefs on the planet collecting near-reef water. The advantage of this task is that it takes, on average, all of 6 minutes underwater to achieve. I then get to enjoy the remaining 54 minutes of each dive exploring the reefs and photo documenting the reef inhabitants, many of whom are extremely photogenic and happy to cooperate. If at this point you are thinking, how is that fair, don’t worry, I spend the remainder of the day and often parts of the night filtering the water in order to extract various microbial and chemical/nutrient components.
The samples we are collecting represent the first broad assessment of the microbial ecology of the Chagos Archipelago’s coral reefs. Anomalously warm ocean temperatures recently led to mass coral mortality across the Archipelago. It is our aim to use the microbial communities to offer insight in to which direction the reefs are transitioning; either back to coral or towards a different state that is not optimal for reef persistence.
Step 5: Figure out how to keep our samples frozen.
This, in order to get them to San Diego, California uncompromised…not yet solved, but still working on it. Watch this space.
For more updates from this and future expeditions follow us on Twitter @BIOTScience
This work was kindly funded by the Bertarelli Foundation as part of the Bertarelli Programme in Marine Science.
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