Project status

The state of the natural world 

Human activity is pushing our precious planet to its limit, threatening the critical systems that support habitats, ways of life and our future.  

Using data compiled in the Living Planet Index (LPI) by researchers at our Institute of Zoology, we contribute to WWF's Living Planet Report (LPR), published every other year. 

The LPR is a leading science-based publication on the state of the natural world, looking at current challenges and practical solutions. 

The Living Planet Index

WWF’s LPR is produced in collaboration with ZSL and a number of other organisations, measuring human pressures and impacts on the state of the natural world.  

With contributions from 81 authors from around the world, this year’s report focuses on the global double emergency of climate change and biodiversity loss. The speed and scale at which biodiversity is changing as well as the impacts of this change can be monitored using indicators such as the Living Planet Index. 

Based on the largest dataset yet, the global LPI shows an average 69% decrease in monitored wildlife populations between 1970 and 2018. Particularly stark declines are shown in the Latin America and Caribbean region (94%) and in freshwater species (83%). The main drivers of wildlife population decline around the world are habitat degradation and loss, exploitation, the introduction of invasive species, pollution, climate change and disease. 

  • 69%
    decrease in monitored wildlife populations between 1970 and 2018
  • 83%
    in freshwater species
  • 94%
    decline in the Latin America and Caribbean region
  • The Living Planet Report analysis

    The report argues that the twin crises can be mitigated with increased conservation and restoration efforts, more sustainable production and consumption of food, and decarbonisation of all sectors.  

    Policymakers will have a unique opportunity at the 15th Conference of Parties for the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD COP15) in December 2022 to deliver an ambitious agreement to reverse biodiversity loss, akin to the net-zero emissions by 2050 target of the Paris Agreement.  

    A nature-positive future is possible with the support of governments, business and society, including the conservation leadership of Indigenous Peoples and local communities around the world. 



    Urgent action to stop the devastation of critical species and habitats by helping people and wildlife live better together, is the only way to save the natural world we love and depend upon. That’s where ZSL comes in, and where you can play your part.