Greater one-horned rhino and Bengal tiger in Nepal

Greater one-horned rhinos, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Image (c) ZSL/NTNC/DNPWC

ZSL has a long conservation history in Nepal, with a focus on the endangered greater one-horned rhino and Bengal tiger which are threated by the effects of a growing human population and poaching. We are currently working in four primary areas, Chitwan National Park, Bardia national park, Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve and Parsa National Park, formerly Parsa Wildlife Reserve. We have created an anti-poaching taskforce, we work with local communities to get them involved in protecting their large mammals, and we monitor these animals long-term to understand better how to protect them.

Why we are there

Growing human wildlife conflict, ever increasing pressure from local communities for natural resources and agricultural land, lack of capacity and education has had a serious impact on the population of tigers, rhinos and other endangered species in the region. A burgeoning human population and accompanying habitat loss, has led to escalating human-wildlife conflict in the region. Poaching for the lucrative market for rhino, elephant and tiger body parts is also a major threat. There is an urgent need to find out more about these threats and to expand the projects working to mitigate them.

Greater one horned rhino

ZSL’s main project in Nepal is currently the conservation of the greater one-horned rhino, which are restricted to small protected areas in north-eastern India and Nepal. The work of conservation organisations, including ZSL, have caused the numbers of rhino in Chitwan National Park to increase from a low of 100 animals in the late 1960’s to at least 645 in 2015. This allowed us to carry out translocations to tother national parks to build up new populations: Bardia national park and Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve.

Chitwan National Park Anti-Poaching

Poaching of large mammals for body parts to sell on the international market is a serious threat to these magnificent species, despite the bans on trade of these items under CITES. The intensive poaching-monitoring project, carried out by ZSL, the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) and the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) was extremely effective in halting the poaching of rhinos. Using this project as a model, ZSL is now assisting NTNC and DNPWC with strengthening anti-poaching measures with the creation of an Anti-)Poaching Task Force (APTF) to guard the rhino and tiger in Chitwan’s National Park. No rhinos have been poached in Nepal since May 2014.

Tigers in Parsa National Park

The ‘Chitwan-Parsa tiger complex’ (made up of Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park) contains nearly 2000 km2 of contiguous tiger habitat and is one of the highest priority landscapes for conservation in Nepal. It is home to nearly 500 rhinos and 135 breeding tigers. ZSL is working to monitor these animals to better understand how to protect them from threats through community projects and conservation capacity building.

Community based education

ZSL and Nepalese partner National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) has been pioneering the use of innovative methods to reach out to local communities and spread the conservation message in Nepal. We're also working in Bardia national Park, involving communities in addressing the immediate threats to wildlife by mitigating human wildlife conflict and improving the well-being of the local communities.

Other projects

Nepal Red Lists

As part of our work in Nepal, ZSL helped compile a report, ‘Status of Mammals of Nepal’, a comprehensive list of mammals that occur in Nepal, with an evaluation of the status of each species, the specific threats to it and conservation recommendations to protect it. This work contributes to the IUCN Red List and will continue with the Birds of Nepal. It is an important tool for the Nepalese Government to assess their progress in protecting the country’s biodiversity. 


As well as the large mammals, ZSL is working to reduce the damaging effects of agricultural drugs on the vulture populations in Nepal. Find out more.

Chinese pangolins

Ambika Khatiwada is working on the conservation of Chinese Pangolin in Nangkholyang and Dokhu villages of Taplejung District, Nepal. This once common mammal has been hunted almost to extinction, and is number 91 on the EDGE mammals list. Find out more about Ambika's work.

How you can help

Find out how you can support our conservation work on our Get Involved page.

Project information

Key species

  • Greater one-horned rhino, vulnerable to extinction
  • Bengal tiger, endangered
  • Asian elephant, endangered
  • Chinese pangolin, endangered 

People involved

  • Gitanjali Bhattacharya manages ZSL’s work in Nepal
  • Ambika Khatiwada - EDGE fellow working on the Chinese pangolin

Partners and sponsors

  • Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC); National Trust for Nature Conservation
  • Kindly funded by: USFWS Rhino-Tiger fund; Darwin initiative


ZSL's flagship site in Nepal, Parsa Wildlife Reserve, has been upgraded to a National Park