Publications - Indicators and Assessments


Arctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds IndexArctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index

The Arctic Migratory Birds Index describes the broad-scale trends in 129 selected migratory bird species. This examination is necessary for designing and targeting informed conservation strategies at the flyway level to address reported declines


About this report

This report aims to describe the broad-scale trends necessary for designing and targeting informed conservation strategies at the flyway level to address reported declines in migratory birds that breed in the Arctic region. We examine abundance change in selected species following the Living Planet Index method, incorporating information from both inside and outside the Arctic to capture possible influences at different points during a species' annual cycle. The 129 species have increased in abundance by 40% on average between 1970 and 2011. This overall trend masks differences between taxa and in flyway regions, with declines in East Asia and Central Asia, and recoveries in Africa-Eurasia and Americas. Shorebirds are in decline while waterfowl show increases across all flyway regions.

The indices presented in this report are an important first step towards building detailed knowledge of Arctic migratory bird populations over the past 40 years and their response to a range of threats along flyway routes. As a barometer for the state of the flyways, our results have implications for policy makers and the wider conservation community both inside and outside the Arctic.

Download: PDF icon Arctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index (6.01 MB)


Living Blue Planet Report 2015

The Living Blue Planet Report

This thematic edition of the Living Planet Report reveals global trends in marine species and examines how pressures such as fishing, pollution and climate change are impacting important aquatic habitats.


About this report

This is a special marine edition of WWF’s Living Planet Report. This report uses the Living Planet Index to provide a global picture on the status of marine biodiversity using data on 7,829 populations from 1,234 species of marine birds, mammals, reptiles and fishes. The main statistic from the report is the global marine LPI which shows a 49% decline between 1970 and 2012. Over-exploitation is one of the main drivers behind the decline, but important marine habitats are also under threat from climate change, pollution and coastal development. Safeguarding these habitats is vital for the conservation of marine biodiversity, the protection of coastline and the support of people’s livelihoods and food security across the globe.

Download: PDF icon Living Blue Planet Report 2015 (5.77 MB)


Protecting Species report 2014

Protecting Species: Status and Trends of the Earth's Protected Areas

This report on the status and trends of the Earth’s protected areas looks into the efficacy of PAs, i.e. where and how PAs are working.


About this report

Protected areas (PAs) have been heralded as one of the cornerstones of global conservation efforts. This report on the status and trends of the Earth’s protected areas looks into the efficacy of PAs, i.e. where and how PAs are working. It shows that population trends within PAs vary greatly across countries with average trends ranging from pronounced increases to rapid declines. Some of these differences relate to differences in income and perceived corruption across countries. But taxonomy also plays a role: reptiles and amphibians in PAs show average population declines of 34% and 97% respectively while fish, birds and mammals showed increasing trends (182%, 57% and 10% respectively). Although this suggests that PAs are working in some cases, protected wildlife populations continue to be affected by habitat change and exploitation, including in some of the most famous PAs in the world.

Download: PDF icon Protecting Species: Status and Trends of the Earth's Protected Areas (10.43 MB)


Living Planet Report 2014

The Living Planet Report 2014

The main statistic from the tenth edition of WWF's flagship report is the global LPI, which shows a 52% decline between 1970 and 2010. This means that animal populations are roughly half the size they were 40 years ago.


About this report

In this tenth edition of WWF's flagship publication the global Living PIanet Index shows a 52% decline between 1970 and 2010. Trends in different habitats exhibit varying levels of decline, with marine and terrestrial species both showing reductions of 39 per cent between 1970 and 2010, while the LPI for freshwater species shows an average decline of 76 per cent. These changes are caused by different threat processes: in terrestrial environments, the loss of habitat for human land use continues to be a major threat compounded by hunting, while freshwater populations are also affected by pollution and invasive species. Globally, wildlife populations are affected by the combined impacts of habitat loss and degradation, driven by unsustainable human consumption. Our current demands on nature are clearly unsustainable and increasing, but there are ways in which we can live within the planet's means.

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Wildlife Comeback in Europe reportWildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species

This study seeks to identify the main drivers for recovery of a selected number of mammal and bird species in Europe, in order to learn lessons for the future.


About this report
This report on the resurgence of European wildlife was produced by the Zoological Society of London, BirdLife International and the European Bird Census Council (EBCC) for the Rewilding Europe Initiative. It shows that a wide-ranging comeback of iconic species has taken place in many regions across the continent over the past 50 years. Legal protection of species and sites emerged as one of the main reasons behind this recovery, while active reintroductions and re-stockings have also been important factors. Whilst this suggests that nature conservation works, more commitment, resources and new kinds of conservation measures are needed in order to halt biodiversity loss and restore other declining and depleted species.

Download: PDF icon Wildlife Comeback in Europe report (19.81 MB)


Spinless reportSpineless: status and trends of the world’s invertebrates

The Spineless report brings together the work of thousands of scientists through the IUCN Red List, to look at the pressures on the environment and how invertebrates are being affected.


About this report
This report contains the most comprehensive assessment of the status and trends of the world’s invertebrates conducted to date. It introduces the staggering diversity of invertebrates, ranging from microscopic zooplankton to giant squid. Together these organisms represent around 80% of the known species on our planet. They not only provide a bewilderingly rich and varied component of the natural world, they are our natural capital; the engineers of the many benefits which humans accrue from an intact and fully functioning environment. This report documents several reasons for concern about the health of invertebrates.


Africa Ecological Footprint reportLiving Planet Index for Africa

The Africa Living Planet Index shows a 39% reduction in the size of vertebrate animal populations between 1970 and 2008 in Africa.


About this report
This report on the state of biodiversity and resource use in Africa offers a broader view than that offered by the results produced by the Living Planet Index alone. It looks at natural resource use within Africa and how the rate of use of resources such as water and natural capital have changed over the past forty years. For example, the Ecological Footprint of all African countries increased by 240% between 1961 and 2008, which is likely due to a combination of population growth and increased consumption per capita. It also presents examples of solutions that promote the creation of wealth and alleviation of poverty through more sustainable management of the continent's natural capital.


The Arctic Species Trend Index 2012Tracking trends in Arctic marine populations

The Arctic Species Trend Index for marine animals shows an increase in abundance between 1970 and 2007. This trend seems likely to be driven by increases in the number of fish in the Bering sea.


About this report
This report into trends in abundance of marine Arctic species looks initially at the overall increasing trend that can be observed. It then breaks this trend down regionally and taxonomically to establish that the overall increase in abundance is different in these subdivisions. We see, for example, that although bird populations increased in abundance substantially until 1986, growth since then has been much more limited. Ecological and management factors are also considered; for example, how changing patterns in sea ice and protected areas can influence trends in population abundance.


Living Planet Report 2012The Living Planet Report 2012

The Living Planet Index shows that global vertebrate populations have declined by 30% since 1970 with a more worrying decline of 60% if only the tropics are considered.


About this report
The 2012 Living Planet Report describes alarming trends both in terms of global biodiversity and the global ecological footprint, amongst other indicators. Global biodiversity is measured using the Living Planet Index (LPI), which describes trends in vertebrate populations. The global ecological footprint index measures the area of biologically productive land and water required to provide the renewable resources that people use, for example, agriculture and carbon sequestration. The world population is currently using resources at a rate equivalent to what one and a half earths could supply, a trend which only seems likely to increase


Arctic Species Trend Index 2011The Arctic Species Trend Index 2011

This update of the Arctic Species Trend Index suggests that the average abundance of Arctic vertebrates increased from 1970 until 1990 and since then has remained fairly stable.


About this report
This report provides an update on the conclusions drawn in the Arctic Species Trend Index report published in 2010, which suggested that the abundance of Arctic vertebrates increased between 1970 and 1990 and thereafter remained fairly stable. When abundance is grouped taxonomically or into broad ecozones, a different pattern is seen with distinct trends emerging for different regions and clades. It goes on to summarise the key results of a spatial analysis performed on this data and on marine vertebrates. The spatial analyses have allowed conclusions to be drawn about biodiversity change over space and time relating to other environmental factors as well as providing an opportunity to identify data gaps. The marine analysis, meanwhile, has allowed distinct patterns in different taxanomic groups to be identified, for example since the late 1980's marine mammal abundance has largely declined whilst marine fish populations have stabilised.


Tracking trends in Arctic marine populationsTracking trends in Arctic vertebrate populations through space and time

This report which analysed Arctic Species Trend Index data from a spatial perspective showed that the proportion of locations with increasing or stable populations has declined since the 1960’s. This could reflect a focus on declining populations in recent data collection efforts or widespread decline in Arctic vertebrate populations.


About this report
This report looked at the Arctic Species Trend Index data, updated from 2010, using spatial analysis techniques to examine broad-scale patterns of biodiversity change across the Arctic. These patterns were looked at in relation to climatic and other environmental data to investigate potential causes of biodiversity change. At a regional level spatial analysis revealed clusters of population growth and decline, for example increases in the Bering Sea and declining fish stocks in the Labrador Sea. This spatial approach was also used to identify gaps in data coverage with a view to finding new data sources and setting up new monitoring programmes to fill the gaps. This report used ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression to analyse spatial trends and used the results of these analyses to make recommendations.


Biodiversity. Global Environmental Outlook 5

This review chapter addresses the key issues surrounding the conservation of global biodiversity today.

About this report
This chapter presents the globally agreed indicators and targets set out for the preservation of biodiversity. It then goes on to discuss the potential implications for human well being if these targets are not met and summarises our understanding of the key pressures on biodiversity at the current time. In doing so it also lays out the ways in which biodiversity is valuable to humans in terms of issues such as health and climate change before going on to discuss the management of different elements of biodiversity and the variety of ways in which the targets set out initially may be achieved.



  • Saha A, McRae L, Dodd, CK Jr., Gadsden H, Hare KM, Lukoschek V, Böhm M. (2018) Tracking Global Population Trends: Population Time-Series Data and a Living Planet Index for Reptiles. Journal of Herpetology, 52(3), pp. 259-268. 
  • Hardesty-Moore M, Deinet S, Freeman R, Titcomb GC, Dillon EM, Stears K, Klope M, Bui A, Orr D, Young HS, Miller-ter Kuile A, Hughey LF, & McCauley DJ. (2018) Migration in the Anthropocene: how collective navigation, environmental system and taxonomy shape the vulnerability of migratory species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 373: 20170017.
  • Geldmann J, Coad L, Barnes MD, Craigie ID, Woodley S, Balmford A, Brooks TM, Hockings M, Knights K, Mascia MB, McRae L, & Burgess ND. (2018) A global analysis of management capacity and ecological outcomes in terrestrial protected areas. Conservation letters: e12434


  • Proença, V., Martin, L.J., Pereira, H.M., Fernandez, M., McRae, L., Belnap, J., Böhm, M., Brummitt, N., García-Moreno, J., Gregory, R.D., Honrado, J.P., Jürgens, N., Opige, M., Schmeller, D.S., Tiago, P. & vanSwaay, C.A.M. (2016) Global biodiversity monitoring: From data sources to Essential Biodiversity Variables. Biological Conservation, in press. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.014

  • Böhm, M., Cook, D., Ma, H., Davidson, A.D., García, A., Tapley, B., Pearce-Kelly, P. & Carr, J. (2016) Hot and bothered: using trait-based approaches to assess climate change vulnerability in reptiles. Biological Conservation, in press. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.002. 

  • Bland, L.M. & Böhm, M. (2016) Overcoming data deficiency in reptiles. Biological Conservation, in press. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.018.

  • Collen, B., Dulvy, N.K., Gaston, K.J., Gärdenfors, U., Keith, D.A., Punt, A.E., Regan, H.M., Böhm, M., Hedges, S., Seddon, M., Butchart, S.H.M., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Bachman, S.P. & Akçakaya, H.R. (2016) Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List. Biology Letters 12: 20150843. 

  • Böhm, M., Williams, R., Bramhall, H., McMillan, K., Davidson, A., Garcia, A., Bland, L., Bielby, J. & Collen, B. (2016) Correlates of extinction risk in squamate reptiles: the relative importance of biology, geography, threat and range size. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 391-405. 


  • Joppa LN, Butchart SHM, Hoffmann M, Bachman S, Akçakaya HR, Moat J, Böhm M, Holland RA, Newton A, Polidoro B. & Hughes A. (in press) The impact of alternative metrics on estimates of Extent of Occurrence for extinction risk assessmentsConservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12591
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  • Schmeller DS, Julliard R, Bellingham PJ, Böhm M, Brummitt N, Chiarucci A, Couvet D, Elmendorf S, Forsyth DM, García Moreno J, Gregory RD, Magnusson WE, Martin LJ, McGeoch MA, Mihoub J-B, Pereira HM, Proença V, van Swaay CAM, Yahara T & Belnap, J. (2015) Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring programJournal for Nature Conservation 25: 51-57.
  • Richman NI, Böhm M, Adams SB, Alvarez F, Bergey EA, Bunn JJS, Burnham Q, Cordeiro J, Coughran J, Crandall KA, Dawkins KL, DiStefano RJ, Doran NE, Edsman L, Eversole AG, Füreder L, Furse JM, Gherardi F, Hamr P, Holdich DM, Horwitz P, Johnston K, Jones CM, Jones JPG, Jones RL, Jones TG, Kawai T, Lawler S, López-Mejía M, Miller RM, Pedraza-Lara C, Reynolds JD, Richardson AMM, Schultz MB, Schuster GA, Sibley PJ, Souty-Grosset C, Taylor CA, Thoma RF, Walls J, Walsh TS & Collen B. (2015) Multiple drivers of decline in the global status of freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidea)Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0060.


  • Durant, S., Pettorelli, N., Blackburn, T., Baillie, J., Boxshall, G., Brooks, S., Carbone, C., Coulson, T., Crees, J., Cunningham, A., Daniels, M., Deinet, S., Ewen, J., Gaston, K., Gregory, R., Hayward, M., MacDonald, D., Mace, G., May, R., Norris, K., Pimm, S., Raffaelli, D., Redpath, S., Sutherland, W. (2014) Non-native species: UK bill could prompt biodiversity loss. Nature, 512: 253.
  • Scharf I, Feldman A, Novosolov M, Pincheira-Donoso D, Das I, Böhm M, Uetz P, Torres-Carvajal O, Bauer A, Roll U & Meiri S. (2014) Late bloomers and baby boomers: ecological drivers of longevity in squamates and the tuataraGlobal Ecology and Biogeography 24(4): 396-405.
  • Collen B, Whitton F, Dyer E, Baillie J, Cumberlidge N, Darwall W, Pollock C, Richman N, Soulsby A-M & Böhm M. (2013) Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and cross-taxon congruenceGlobal Ecology and Biogeography 23(1): 40-51.
  • Böhm M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bowles P, Chanson J, Cox N, Hammerson G, Hoffmann M, Livingstone SR, Ram M, Rhodin et al. (2013) The conservation status of the world's reptilesBiological Conservation, 157: 372–385.
  • Gower DJ, Aberra RK, Schwaller S, Largen MJ, Collen B, Spawls S, Menegon M, Zimkus BM, de Sá R, Mengistu AA, Gebresenbet F, Moore RD, Saber SA, & Loader SP. (2013) Long-term data for endemic frog genera reveal potential conservation crisis in the Bale Mountains, EthiopiaOryx, 47(1): 59-69
  • Nicholson E, Collen B, Barausse A, Blanchard J, Burn B, Costelloe B, Fritz S, Jones J, McRae L, Possingham H, Sullivan K, Underwood F, & Milner-Gulland EJ. (2012) Making Robust Policy Decisions Using Global Biodiversity Indicators.PLoS ONE, 7(7): e41128
  • McRae L, Gill M, Bohm M, Deinet S, & Collen B. (2012) The Arctic Species Trend Index: using vertebrate population trends to monitor the health of this rapidly changing ecosystem.Circumpolar Biodiversity, 13: 144-156
  • Hutchings JA, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Schwartz MK, & Waples RS. (2012) Red Flags: correlates of impaired species recoveryTrends in Ecology and Evolution, 27(10): 542-6
  • Durant SM, Pettorelli N, Bashir S, Woodroffe R, Wacher T, De Ornellas P, Ransom C, Abáigar T, Abdelgadir M, El Alqamy H, Beddiaf M, Belbachir F, Belbachir-Bazi A, Berbash AA, Beudels-Jamar R, Boitani L, Breitenmoser C, Cano M, Chardonnet P, Collen B, Cornforth WA, Cuzin F, Gerngross P, Haddane B, Hadjeloum M, Jacobson A, Jebali A, Lamarque F, Mallon D, Minkowski K, Monfort S, Ndoassal B, Newby J, Ngakoutou BE, Niagate B, Purchase G, Samaïla S, Samna AK, Sillero-Zubiri C, Soultan AE, Stanley Price MR, & Baillie JEM. (2012) Forgotten biodiversity: conservation neglect and the empty desertScience, 336: 1379
  • Collen B, & Böhm M. (2012) The growing availability of invertebrate extinction risk assessments - a response to Cardoso et al. (October 2011): Adapting the IUCN Red List criteria for invertebratesBiological Conservation,149: 145–146
  • Bland LM, Collen B, Orme CDL, & Bielby J. (2012) Data uncertainty and the selectivity of extinction risk in freshwater invertebratesDiversity and Distributions, 18: 1211–1220


  • Sparks TH, Butchart SHM, Balmford A, Bennun L, Stanwell-Smith D, Walpole M, Bates N, Bomhard B, Bruno J, Buchanan G, Chenery AM, Collen B, Csirke J, Diaz RJ, Dulvy N, Fitzgerald C, Herkenrath P, Kapos V, Mayaux P, Tierney M, Waycott M, Wood L, & Green RE. (2011) Linked indicator sets emphasise the need for policy action to halt biodiversity declineOryx, 45(3): 411-419
  • Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Baillie JEM, Ash N, Benson J, Boucher T, Brown C, Burgess N, Collen B, Jennings M, Keith DA, Nicholson E, Revenga C, Reyers B, Rouget M, Smith T, Spalding M, Taber A, Walpole M, Zager I, & Zamin T. (2011) Establishing IUCN Red List criteria for threatened ecosystemsConservation Biology, 25: 21-29
  • Jones JPG, Collen B, Baxter PWJ, Bubb P, Illian JB, Katzner TE, Keane A, Loh J, McDonald-Madden E, Nicholson E, Pereira HM, Possingham HP, Pullin AS, Rodrigues ASL, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Sommerville M, & Milner-Gulland EJ. (2011) The why, what and how of biodiversity indicators: looking beyond 2010Conservation Biology, 25: 450-457
  • Galewski T, Collen B, Loh J, McRae L, Grillas P, & Devictor V. (2011) Long term trends in the abundance of Mediterranean wetland vertebrates: from global recovery to localized declinesBiological Conservation, 144: 1392-1399
  • Di Fonzo M, Pelletier F, Clutton-Brock T, Pemberton JM, & Coulson T. (2011) The population growth consequences of variation in individual heterozygosity.PLoS One, 6: (5) e19667
  • Collen B, Turvey ST, Waterman C, Meredith HMR, Baillie JEM, & Isaac NJB. (2011) Investing in Evolutionary History: implementing a phylogenetic approach for mammalian conservationPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 366: 2611-2622
  • Collen B, McRae L, Deinet S, De Palma A, Carranza T, Loh J, Cooper N, & Baillie JEM. (2011) Predicting how populations decline to extinctionPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 366: 2577-2586
  • Collen B, Howard R, Konie J, Daniel O, & Rist J. (2011) Field surveys for the Endangered pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis in Sapo National Park, LiberiaOryx, 45(1): 35-37
  • Zamin T, Baillie JEM, Miller R, Rodriguez JP, Ardid A, & Collen B. (2010) National Red Listing Beyond the 2010 Target.Conservation Biology, 24(4): 1012-1020
  • Turvey ST, Barrett LA, Hart T, Collen B, Hao Yujiang, Zhang Lei, Zhang Xinqiao, Wang Xianyan, Huang Yadong, Zhou Kaiya, & Wang Ding. (2010) Spatial and temporal extinction dynamics in a freshwater cetaceanProceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 277: 3139-3147
  • Pereira HM, Proença V,  Belnapp J, Brummitt N, Collen B, Ding H, Gonzalez M, Gregory RD, Honrado J, Jongman R, Julliard R, McRae L, Rodrigues P, Opige M, Rodriguez JP, Schmeller D, van Swaay C, & Vieira C. (2010) Global biodiversity monitoringFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(9): 459-600
  • Norris K, Asase A, Collen B, Gockowski J, Mason J, Phalan B, & Wade A. (2010) Biodiversity in a forest-agriculture mosaic - The changing face of West African rainforestsBiological Conservation, 143(10):2341-2350
  • Mace GM, Collen B, Fuller RA, & Boakes EH. (2010) Population and geographic range dynamics: implications for conservation planningPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 365: 3743-3751
  • Hoffmann M, Hilton-Taylor C, Angulo A, Böhm M, Brooks TM, Butchart SHM, Carpenter KE, Chanson J, Collen B, Cox NA, Darwall WRT, Dulvy NK, Harrison LR, Katariya V, Pollock CM, Quader S, Richman NI, Rodrigues ASL, Tognelli MF, Vié J-C, Aguiar JM, Allen DJ, Allen GR, Amori G, Ananjeva NB, Andreone F, Andrew P, Aquino Ortiz AL, Baillie JEM, Baldi R, Bell BD, Biju SD, Bird JP, Black-Decima P, Blanc JJ, Bolaños F, Bolivar-G W, Burfield IJ, Burton JA, Capper DR, Castro F, Catullo G, Cavanagh RD, Channing A, Chao NL, Chenery AM, Chiozza F, Clausnitzer V, Collar NJ, Collett LC, Collette BB, Cortez Fernandez CF, Craig MT, Crosby MJ, Cumberlidge N, Cuttelod A, Derocher AE, Diesmos AC, Donaldson JS, Duckworth JW, Dutson G, Dutta SK, Emslie RH, Farjon A, Fowler S, Freyhof J, Garshelis DL, Gerlach J, Gower DJ, Grant TD, Hammerson GA, Harris RB, Heaney LR, Hedges SB, Hero J-M, Hughes B, Hussain SA, Icochea MJ, Inger RF, Ishii N, Iskandar DT, Jenkins RKB, Kaneko Y, Kottelat M, Kovacs KM, Kuzmin SL, La Marca E, Lamoreux JF, Lau MWN, Lavilla EO, Leus K, Lewison RL, Lichtenstein G, Livingstone SR, Lukoschek V, Mallon DP, McGowan PJK, McIvor A, Moehlman PD, Molur S, Muñoz Alonso A, Musick JA, Nowell K, Nussbaum RA, Olech W, Orlov NL, Papenfuss TJ, Parra-Olea G, Perrin WF, Polidoro BA, Pourkazemi M, Racey PA, Ragle JA, Ram M, Rathbun G, Reynolds RP, Rhodin AGJ, Richards SJ, Rodríguez LO, Ron SR, Rondinini C, Rylands AB, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Sanciangco JC, Sanders KL, Santos-Barrera G, Schipper J, Self-Sullivan C, Shi Y, Shoemaker A, Short FT, Sillero-Zubiri C, Silvano DL, Smith KG, Smith AT, Snoeks J, Stattersfield AJ, Symes AJ, Taber AB, Talukdar BK, Temple HJ, Timmins R, Tobias JA, Tsytsulina K, Tweddle D, Ubeda C, Valenti SV, van Dijk PP, Veiga LM, Veloso A, Wege DC, Wilkinson M, Williamson EA, Xie F, Young BE, Akçakaya HR, Bennun L, Blackburn TM, Boitani L, Dublin HT, da Fonseca GAB, Gascon C, Lacher TE, Mace GM, Mainka SA, McNeely JA, Mittermeier RA, McGregor Reid G, Rodriguez JP, Rosenberg AA, Samways MJ, Smart J, Stein Ba, & Stuart SN. (2010) The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s VertebratesScience, 330: 1503-1509
  • Craigie I, Baillie JEM, Balmford A, Carbone C, Collen B, & Green R. (2010) Large mammal population declines in Africa’s Protected AreasBiological Conservation, 143(9): 2221-2228
  • Collen B, Purvis A, & Mace GM. (2010) When is a species really extinct? Inferring extinction from a sightings record to inform conservation assessmentDiversity & Distributions, 16(5):755-764 
  • Collen B & Baillie JEM. (2010) The barometer of life: SamplingScience, 329: 140 
  • Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharleman JPW, Almond REA, Baillie JEM, Bomhard B, Brown C, Bruno J, Carpenter KE, Carr GM, Chanson J, Chenery A, Csirke J, Davidson NC, Dentener F, Foster M, Galli A, Galloway JN, Genovesi P, Gregory R, Hockings M, Kapos V, Lamarque J-F, Leverington F, Loh J, McGeoch MA, McRae L, Minasyan A, Hernández Morcillo M, Oldfield T, Pauly D, Quader S, Revenga C, Sauer J, Skolnik B, Spear D, Stanwell-Smith D, Stuart SN, Symes A, Tierney M, Tyrrell TR, Vié J-C, & Watson R. (2010) Global biodiversity, indicators of recent declinesScience, 328:1164-1168
  • Butchart SHM, Baillie JEM, Chenery A, Collen B, Gregory RD, Revenga C, & Walpole M. (2010) National indicators show Biodiversity progress, Response to Xu et alScience, 329: 900-901
  • Walpole M, Almond R, Besançon C, Butchart S, Campbell-Lendrum D, Carr GM, Collen B, Collette L, Davidson NC, Fazel A, Galloway JN, Gill M, Goverse T, Hockings M, Morgan DHW, Revenga C, Rickwood CJ, Schutyser F, Simons S, Stattersfield A, Tyrrell T, & Vié J-C. (2009) Tracking progress towards the 2010 biodiversity target and beyondScience, 325: 1503-1504
  • Salafsky N, Butchart SHM, Salzer D, Stattersfield AJ, Neugarten R, Hilton-Taylor C, Collen B, Master LL, O’Connor S, & Wilkie D. (2009) Pragmatism and Practice In Classifying Threats: A Reply to Balmford et alConservation Biology, 23:  488-493
  • Sachs JD, Baillie JEM, Sutherland WJ, Armsworth P, Ash N, Bateson P, Beddington J, Blackburn T, Collen B, Gardiner B, Gaston KJ, Godfray HCJ, Green R, Harvey P, Homewood K, House B, Hutton J, Knapp S, Kumpel N, MacDonald D, Mace GM, Mallett J, Matthews A, May R, Petchey O, Purvis A, Raffaelli D, Rodrigues A, Roe D, Safi K, Toulmin C, Turner K, Walpole M, Watson R, & Jones KE. (2009) Biodiversity conservation and the Millennium Development Goals.Science, 325: 1502-1503
  • Cumberlidge N, Ng PK, Yeo DCJ, Magalhaes C, Campos MR, Alvarez F, Naruse T, Daniel SR, Esser LJ, Attipoe FYK, Clotilde-Ba F-L, Darwall W, Mcivor A, Baillie JEM, Collen B, & Ram M. (2009) Freshwater crabs and the biodiversity crisis: importance, threats, status, and conservation challenges.  Biological Conservation, 142(8): 1665-1673
  • Collen B, Loh J, McRae L, Whitmee S, Amin R, & Baillie JEM. (2009) Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the Living Planet IndexConservation Biology, 23: 317-327
  • Clausnitzer V, Kalkman VJ, Ram M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bedjanič M, Darwall WRT, Dijkstra K-DB, Dow R, Hawking J, Karube H, Malikova E, Paulson D, Schütte K, Suhling F, Villanueva R, von Ellenrieder N, & Wilson K. (2009) Odonata enter the biodiversity crisis debate: the first global assessment of an insect groupBiological Conservation, 142(8): 1864-1869
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