Publications - Indicators and Assessments

Wildlife Comeback in Europe report
Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species

This study seeks to identify the main drivers for recovery of a selected number of mammal and bird species in Europe, in order to learn lessons for the future.

Inquiries stefanie.deinet@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report on the resurgence of European wildlife was produced by the Zoological Society of London, BirdLife International and the European Bird Census Council (EBCC) for the Rewilding Europe Initiative. It shows that a wide-ranging comeback of iconic species has taken place in many regions across the continent over the past 50 years. Legal protection of species and sites emerged as one of the main reasons behind this recovery, while active reintroductions and re-stockings have also been important factors. Whilst this suggests that nature conservation works, more commitment, resources and new kinds of conservation measures are needed in order to halt biodiversity loss and restore other declining and depleted species.

Download: Wildlife Comeback in Europe report (19.81 MB)

Spineless: status and trends of the world’s invertebrates

The Spineless report brings together the work of thousands of scientists through the IUCN Red List, to look at the pressures on the environment and how invertebrates are being affected.

Inquiries monika.böhm@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report contains the most comprehensive assessment of the status and trends of the world’s invertebrates conducted to date. It introduces the staggering diversity of invertebrates, ranging from microscopic zooplankton to giant squid. Together these organisms represent around 80% of the known species on our planet. They not only provide a bewilderingly rich and varied component of the natural world, they are our natural capital; the engineers of the many benefits which humans accrue from an intact and fully functioning environment. This report documents several reasons for concern about the health of invertebrates.

Living Planet Index for Africa

The Africa Living Planet Index shows a 39% reduction in the size of vertebrate animal populations between 1970 and 2008 in Africa.

Inquiries louise.mcrae@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report on the state of biodiversity and resource use in Africa offers a broader view than that offered by the results produced by the Living Planet Index alone. It looks at natural resource use within Africa and how the rate of use of resources such as water and natural capital have changed over the past forty years. For example, the Ecological Footprint of all African countries increased by 240% between 1961 and 2008, which is likely due to a combination of population growth and increased consumption per capita. It also presents examples of solutions that promote the creation of wealth and alleviation of poverty through more sustainable management of the continent's natural capital.

Tracking trends in Arctic marine populations

The Arctic Species Trend Index for marine animals shows an increase in abundance between 1970 and 2007. This trend seems likely to be driven by increases in the number of fish in the Bering sea.

Inquiries louise.mcrae@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report into trends in abundance of marine Arctic species looks initially at the overall increasing trend that can be observed. It then breaks this trend down regionally and taxonomically to establish that the overall increase in abundance is different in these subdivisions. We see, for example, that although bird populations increased in abundance substantially until 1986, growth since then has been much more limited. Ecological and management factors are also considered; for example, how changing patterns in sea ice and protected areas can influence trends in population abundance.

The Living Planet Report 2012

The Living Planet Index shows that global vertebrate populations have declined by 30% since 1970 with a more worrying decline of 60% if only the tropics are considered.

Inquiries louise.mcrae@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
The 2012 Living Planet Report describes alarming trends both in terms of global biodiversity and the global ecological footprint, amongst other indicators. Global biodiversity is measured using the Living Planet Index (LPI), which describes trends in vertebrate populations. The global ecological footprint index measures the area of biologically productive land and water required to provide the renewable resources that people use, for example, agriculture and carbon sequestration. The world population is currently using resources at a rate equivalent to what one and a half earths could supply, a trend which only seems likely to increase

The Arctic Species Trend Index 2011

This update of the Arctic Species Trend Index suggests that the average abundance of Arctic vertebrates increased from 1970 until 1990 and since then has remained fairly stable.

Inquiries louise.mcrae@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report provides an update on the conclusions drawn in the Arctic Species Trend Index report published in 2010, which suggested that the abundance of Arctic vertebrates increased between 1970 and 1990 and thereafter remained fairly stable. When abundance is grouped taxonomically or into broad ecozones, a different pattern is seen with distinct trends emerging for different regions and clades. It goes on to summarise the key results of a spatial analysis performed on this data and on marine vertebrates. The spatial analyses have allowed conclusions to be drawn about biodiversity change over space and time relating to other environmental factors as well as providing an opportunity to identify data gaps. The marine analysis, meanwhile, has allowed distinct patterns in different taxanomic groups to be identified, for example since the late 1980's marine mammal abundance has largely declined whilst marine fish populations have stabilised.

Tracking trends in Arctic vertebrate populations through space and time

This report which analysed Arctic Species Trend Index data from a spatial perspective showed that the proportion of locations with increasing or stable populations has declined since the 1960’s. This could reflect a focus on declining populations in recent data collection efforts or widespread decline in Arctic vertebrate populations.

Inquiries monika.bohm@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report looked at the Arctic Species Trend Index data, updated from 2010, using spatial analysis techniques to examine broad-scale patterns of biodiversity change across the Arctic. These patterns were looked at in relation to climatic and other environmental data to investigate potential causes of biodiversity change. At a regional level spatial analysis revealed clusters of population growth and decline, for example increases in the Bering Sea and declining fish stocks in the Labrador Sea. This spatial approach was also used to identify gaps in data coverage with a view to finding new data sources and setting up new monitoring programmes to fill the gaps. This report used ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression to analyse spatial trends and used the results of these analyses to make recommendations.

Biodiversity. Global Environmental Outlook 5

This review chapter addresses the key issues surrounding the conservation of global biodiversity today.

About this report
This chapter presents the globally agreed indicators and targets set out for the preservation of biodiversity. It then goes on to discuss the potential implications for human well being if these targets are not met and summarises our understanding of the key pressures on biodiversity at the current time. In doing so it also lays out the ways in which biodiversity is valuable to humans in terms of issues such as health and climate change before going on to discuss the management of different elements of biodiversity and the variety of ways in which the targets set out initially may be achieved.
 

Wildlife Comeback in Europe: An overview of changes in abundance and distribution of selected wildlife species in Europe for the period 1960-2010

This report looks at the dynamic changes in patterns of distribution of European wildlife comeback over the past 50 years. The broadest scale analysis in this report showed that between 1960 and 2010 range sizes have increased by 20% on average for the 106 species analysed.

Inquiries stefanie.deinet@ioz.ac.uk

About this report
This report looks at trends in wildlife comeback in Europe through the lens of territory expansion or recolonisation and population growth. Analysis was carried out at several scales. A small group of 20 species of bird and mammal were examined in detail; the changing pattern of their range sizes and conservation history were considered to assess success of management strategies and identify areas for improvement. The report suggests that the strongest comebacks do seem to have been driven by management interventions, such as cessation of exploitation. Comebacks, such as those described in this report, are important as they may provide an evidence base that can be applied for wider success of management of species for conservation. A further analysis of 25 species was carried out, some showing range expansions and others contractions, highlighting the need for effective conservation strategies. A broader analysis of 106 species' range size and population abundance time series data was carried out, revealing an average 20% increase in range size. It should be noted, however, that an increase in range size does not neccesarily indicate that a species is fully recovered. Trophic level, body size and location of populations were also given a consideration, for example declines seem to be clustered in Southern Europe. The report also considered how to go about analysing fossil and historical records to assess abundance.

Papers

2012-13

  • Collen B, Whitton F, Dyer E, Baillie J, Cumberlidge N, Darwall W, Pollock C, Richman N, Soulsby A-M & Böhm M. (2013) Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and cross-taxon congruenceGlobal Ecology and Biogeography.
  • Böhm M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bowles P, Chanson J, Cox N, Hammerson G, Hoffmann M, Livingstone SR, Ram M, Rhodin et al. (2013) The conservation status of the world's reptilesBiological Conservation, 157: 372–385.
  • Gower DJ, Aberra RK, Schwaller S, Largen MJ, Collen B, Spawls S, Menegon M, Zimkus BM, de Sá R, Mengistu AA, Gebresenbet F, Moore RD, Saber SA, & Loader SP. (2013) Long-term data for endemic frog genera reveal potential conservation crisis in the Bale Mountains, EthiopiaOryx, 47(1): 59-69
  • Nicholson E, Collen B, Barausse A, Blanchard J, Burn B, Costelloe B, Fritz S, Jones J, McRae L, Possingham H, Sullivan K, Underwood F, & Milner-Gulland EJ. (2012) Making Robust Policy Decisions Using Global Biodiversity Indicators.PLoS ONE, 7(7): e41128
  • McRae L, Gill M, Bohm M, Deinet S, & Collen B. (2012) The Arctic Species Trend Index: using vertebrate population trends to monitor the health of this rapidly changing ecosystem.Circumpolar Biodiversity, 13: 144-156
  • Hutchings JA, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Schwartz MK, & Waples RS. (2012) Red Flags: correlates of impaired species recoveryTrends in Ecology and Evolution, 27(10): 542-6
  • Durant SM, Pettorelli N, Bashir S, Woodroffe R, Wacher T, De Ornellas P, Ransom C, Abáigar T, Abdelgadir M, El Alqamy H, Beddiaf M, Belbachir F, Belbachir-Bazi A, Berbash AA, Beudels-Jamar R, Boitani L, Breitenmoser C, Cano M, Chardonnet P, Collen B, Cornforth WA, Cuzin F, Gerngross P, Haddane B, Hadjeloum M, Jacobson A, Jebali A, Lamarque F, Mallon D, Minkowski K, Monfort S, Ndoassal B, Newby J, Ngakoutou BE, Niagate B, Purchase G, Samaïla S, Samna AK, Sillero-Zubiri C, Soultan AE, Stanley Price MR, & Baillie JEM. (2012)Forgotten biodiversity: conservation neglect and the empty desertScience, 336: 1379
  • Collen B, & Böhm M. (2012) The growing availability of invertebrate extinction risk assessments - a response to Cardoso et al. (October 2011): Adapting the IUCN Red List criteria for invertebratesBiological Conservation,149: 145–146
  • Bland LM, Collen B, Orme CDL, & Bielby J. (2012) Data uncertainty and the selectivity of extinction risk in freshwater invertebratesDiversity and Distributions, 18: 1211–1220

2006-2011

  • Sparks TH, Butchart SHM, Balmford A, Bennun L, Stanwell-Smith D, Walpole M, Bates N, Bomhard B, Bruno J, Buchanan G, Chenery AM, Collen B, Csirke J, Diaz RJ, Dulvy N, Fitzgerald C, Herkenrath P, Kapos V, Mayaux P, Tierney M, Waycott M, Wood L, & Green RE. (2011) Linked indicator sets emphasise the need for policy action to halt biodiversity declineOryx, 45(3): 411-419
  • Rodríguez JP, Rodríguez-Clark KM, Baillie JEM, Ash N, Benson J, Boucher T, Brown C, Burgess N, Collen B, Jennings M, Keith DA, Nicholson E, Revenga C, Reyers B, Rouget M, Smith T, Spalding M, Taber A, Walpole M, Zager I, & Zamin T. (2011)Establishing IUCN Red List criteria for threatened ecosystemsConservation Biology, 25: 21-29
  • Jones JPG, Collen B, Baxter PWJ, Bubb P, Illian JB, Katzner TE, Keane A, Loh J, McDonald-Madden E, Nicholson E, Pereira HM, Possingham HP, Pullin AS, Rodrigues ASL, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Sommerville M, & Milner-Gulland EJ. (2011) The why, what and how of biodiversity indicators: looking beyond 2010Conservation Biology, 25: 450-457
  • Galewski T, Collen B, Loh J, McRae L, Grillas P, & Devictor V. (2011) Long term trends in the abundance of Mediterranean wetland vertebrates: from global recovery to localized declinesBiological Conservation, 144: 1392-1399
  • Di Fonzo M, Pelletier F, Clutton-Brock T, Pemberton JM, & Coulson T. (2011) The population growth consequences of variation in individual heterozygosity.PLoS One, 6: (5) e19667
  • Collen B, Turvey ST, Waterman C, Meredith HMR, Baillie JEM, & Isaac NJB. (2011)Investing in Evolutionary History: implementing a phylogenetic approach for mammalian conservationPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 366: 2611-2622
  • Collen B, McRae L, Deinet S, De Palma A, Carranza T, Loh J, Cooper N, & Baillie JEM. (2011) Predicting how populations decline to extinctionPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 366: 2577-2586
  • Collen B, Howard R, Konie J, Daniel O, & Rist J. (2011) Field surveys for the Endangered pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis in Sapo National Park, LiberiaOryx, 45(1): 35-37
  • Zamin T, Baillie JEM, Miller R, Rodriguez JP, Ardid A, & Collen B. (2010) National Red Listing Beyond the 2010 Target.Conservation Biology, 24(4): 1012-1020
  • Turvey ST, Barrett LA, Hart T, Collen B, Hao Yujiang, Zhang Lei, Zhang Xinqiao, Wang Xianyan, Huang Yadong, Zhou Kaiya, & Wang Ding. (2010) Spatial and temporal extinction dynamics in a freshwater cetaceanProceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 277: 3139-3147
  • Pereira HM, Proença V,  Belnapp J, Brummitt N, Collen B, Ding H, Gonzalez M, Gregory RD, Honrado J, Jongman R, Julliard R, McRae L, Rodrigues P, Opige M, Rodriguez JP, Schmeller D, van Swaay C, & Vieira C. (2010) Global biodiversity monitoringFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(9): 459-600
  • Norris K, Asase A, Collen B, Gockowski J, Mason J, Phalan B, & Wade A. (2010)Biodiversity in a forest-agriculture mosaic - The changing face of West African rainforestsBiological Conservation, 143(10):2341-2350
  • Mace GM, Collen B, Fuller RA, & Boakes EH. (2010) Population and geographic range dynamics: implications for conservation planningPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 365: 3743-3751
  • Hoffmann M, Hilton-Taylor C, Angulo A, Böhm M, Brooks TM, Butchart SHM, Carpenter KE, Chanson J, Collen B, Cox NA, Darwall WRT, Dulvy NK, Harrison LR, Katariya V, Pollock CM, Quader S, Richman NI, Rodrigues ASL, Tognelli MF, Vié J-C, Aguiar JM, Allen DJ, Allen GR, Amori G, Ananjeva NB, Andreone F, Andrew P, Aquino Ortiz AL, Baillie JEM, Baldi R, Bell BD, Biju SD, Bird JP, Black-Decima P, Blanc JJ, Bolaños F, Bolivar-G W, Burfield IJ, Burton JA, Capper DR, Castro F, Catullo G, Cavanagh RD, Channing A, Chao NL, Chenery AM, Chiozza F, Clausnitzer V, Collar NJ, Collett LC, Collette BB, Cortez Fernandez CF, Craig MT, Crosby MJ, Cumberlidge N, Cuttelod A, Derocher AE, Diesmos AC, Donaldson JS, Duckworth JW, Dutson G, Dutta SK, Emslie RH, Farjon A, Fowler S, Freyhof J, Garshelis DL, Gerlach J, Gower DJ, Grant TD, Hammerson GA, Harris RB, Heaney LR, Hedges SB, Hero J-M, Hughes B, Hussain SA, Icochea MJ, Inger RF, Ishii N, Iskandar DT, Jenkins RKB, Kaneko Y, Kottelat M, Kovacs KM, Kuzmin SL, La Marca E, Lamoreux JF, Lau MWN, Lavilla EO, Leus K, Lewison RL, Lichtenstein G, Livingstone SR, Lukoschek V, Mallon DP, McGowan PJK, McIvor A, Moehlman PD, Molur S, Muñoz Alonso A, Musick JA, Nowell K, Nussbaum RA, Olech W, Orlov NL, Papenfuss TJ, Parra-Olea G, Perrin WF, Polidoro BA, Pourkazemi M, Racey PA, Ragle JA, Ram M, Rathbun G, Reynolds RP, Rhodin AGJ, Richards SJ, Rodríguez LO, Ron SR, Rondinini C, Rylands AB, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Sanciangco JC, Sanders KL, Santos-Barrera G, Schipper J, Self-Sullivan C, Shi Y, Shoemaker A, Short FT, Sillero-Zubiri C, Silvano DL, Smith KG, Smith AT, Snoeks J, Stattersfield AJ, Symes AJ, Taber AB, Talukdar BK, Temple HJ, Timmins R, Tobias JA, Tsytsulina K, Tweddle D, Ubeda C, Valenti SV, van Dijk PP, Veiga LM, Veloso A, Wege DC, Wilkinson M, Williamson EA, Xie F, Young BE, Akçakaya HR, Bennun L, Blackburn TM, Boitani L, Dublin HT, da Fonseca GAB, Gascon C, Lacher TE, Mace GM, Mainka SA, McNeely JA, Mittermeier RA, McGregor Reid G, Rodriguez JP, Rosenberg AA, Samways MJ, Smart J, Stein Ba, & Stuart SN. (2010) The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s VertebratesScience, 330: 1503-1509
  • Craigie I, Baillie JEM, Balmford A, Carbone C, Collen B, & Green R. (2010) Large mammal population declines in Africa’s Protected AreasBiological Conservation, 143(9): 2221-2228
  • Collen B, Purvis A, & Mace GM. (2010)When is a species really extinct? Inferring extinction from a sightings record to inform conservation assessmentDiversity & Distributions, 16(5):755-764 
  • Collen B & Baillie JEM. (2010) The barometer of life: SamplingScience, 329: 140 
  • Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharleman JPW, Almond REA, Baillie JEM, Bomhard B, Brown C, Bruno J, Carpenter KE, Carr GM, Chanson J, Chenery A, Csirke J, Davidson NC, Dentener F, Foster M, Galli A, Galloway JN, Genovesi P, Gregory R, Hockings M, Kapos V, Lamarque J-F, Leverington F, Loh J, McGeoch MA, McRae L, Minasyan A, Hernández Morcillo M, Oldfield T, Pauly D, Quader S, Revenga C, Sauer J, Skolnik B, Spear D, Stanwell-Smith D, Stuart SN, Symes A, Tierney M, Tyrrell TR, Vié J-C, & Watson R. (2010) Global biodiversity, indicators of recent declinesScience, 328:1164-1168
  • Butchart SHM, Baillie JEM, Chenery A, Collen B, Gregory RD, Revenga C, & Walpole M. (2010) National indicators show Biodiversity progress, Response to Xu et alScience, 329: 900-901
  • Walpole M, Almond R, Besançon C, Butchart S, Campbell-Lendrum D, Carr GM, Collen B, Collette L, Davidson NC, Fazel A, Galloway JN, Gill M, Goverse T, Hockings M, Morgan DHW, Revenga C, Rickwood CJ, Schutyser F, Simons S, Stattersfield A, Tyrrell T, & Vié J-C. (2009). Tracking progress towards the 2010 biodiversity target and beyondScience, 325: 1503-1504
  • Salafsky N, Butchart SHM, Salzer D, Stattersfield AJ, Neugarten R, Hilton-Taylor C, Collen B, Master LL, O’Connor S, & Wilkie D. (2009) Pragmatism and Practice In Classifying Threats: A Reply to Balmford et alConservation Biology, 23:  488-493
  • Sachs JD, Baillie JEM, Sutherland WJ, Armsworth P, Ash N, Bateson P, Beddington J, Blackburn T, Collen B, Gardiner B, Gaston KJ, Godfray HCJ, Green R, Harvey P, Homewood K, House B, Hutton J, Knapp S, Kumpel N, MacDonald D, Mace GM, Mallett J, Matthews A, May R, Petchey O, Purvis A, Raffaelli D, Rodrigues A, Roe D, Safi K, Toulmin C, Turner K, Walpole M, Watson R, & Jones KE. (2009) Biodiversity conservation and the Millennium Development Goals.Science, 325: 1502-1503
  • Cumberlidge N, Ng PK, Yeo DCJ, Magalhaes C, Campos MR, Alvarez F, Naruse T, Daniel SR, Esser LJ, Attipoe FYK, Clotilde-Ba F-L, Darwall W, Mcivor A, Baillie JEM, Collen B, & Ram M. (2009)Freshwater crabs and the biodiversity crisis: importance, threats, status, and conservation challenges.  Biological Conservation, 142(8): 1665-1673
  • Collen B, Loh J, McRae L, Whitmee S, Amin R, & Baillie JEM. (2009) Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the Living Planet IndexConservation Biology, 23: 317-327
  • Clausnitzer V, Kalkman VJ, Ram M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bedjanič M, Darwall WRT, Dijkstra K-DB, Dow R, Hawking J, Karube H, Malikova E, Paulson D, Schütte K, Suhling F, Villanueva R, von Ellenrieder N, & Wilson K. (2009) Odonata enter the biodiversity crisis debate: the first global assessment of an insect groupBiological Conservation, 142(8): 1864-1869
  • Schipper J, Chanson J, Chiozza F, Cox N, Hoffmann M, Katariya V, Lamoreux J, Rodrigues A, Stuart SN, Temple HJ, Baillie JEM, Boitani L, Lacher TE, Mittermeier RA, Smith AT, Absolon D, Aguiar JM, Amori G, Bakkour N, Baldi RA, Berridge RJ, Bielby J, Black PA, Blanc JJ, Brooks TM, Burton JA, Butynski TM, Catullo G, Chapman R, Cokeliss Z, Collen B, et al. (2008) The Status of the World's Land and Marine Mammals: Diversity, Threat and KnowledgeScience, 322: 225-230
  • Salafsky N, Salzer D, Stattersfield AJ, Hilton-Taylor C, Neugarten R, Butchart SHM, Collen B, Cox N, Master LL, O’Connor S, & Wilkie D. (2008).  A Standard Lexicon for Biodiversity Conservation: Unified Classifications of Threats and ActionsConservation Biology, 22: 897-911
  • Collen B, Ram M, Zamin T, & McRae L. (2008) The tropical biodiversity data gap: addressing disparity in global monitoringTropical Conservation Science, 1(2): 97-110
  • Baillie JEM, Collen B, Amin R, Akçakaya HR, Butchart SHM, Brummitt N, Meagher TR, Ram M, Hilton-Taylor C, & Mace GM. (2008) Towards monitoring global biodiversityConservation Letters, 1: 18-26
  • Mace GM & Baillie JEM. (2007) The 2010 Biodiversity Indicators: challenges for science and policyConservation Biology21: 1406-1413
  • Isaac NJB, Turvey ST, Collen B, Waterman C, & Baillie JEM. (2007) Mammals on the EDGE: Conservation priorities based on threat and phylogenyPLoS ONE, 2(3): e296
  • Butchart SNM, Akçakaya HR, Chanson J, Baillie JEM, Collen B, Quader S, Turner WR, Amin R, Stuart SN, & Hilton-Taylor C. (2007) Improvements to the Red List IndexPLoS ONE, 2(1): e140 
  • Collen B, Bykova E, Ling S, Millner-Gulland E-J, & Purvis A. (2006)Extinction risk: a comparative analysis of central Asian vertebratesBiodiversity & Conservation, 15: 1859
  • Nic Lughadha E, Baillie JEM, Barthlott W, Brummitt NA, Cheek MR, et al. (2005)Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent actionPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 360: 359-372
  • Loh J, Green RE, Ricketts T, Lamoreux JF, Jenkins M, et al. (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 360: 289-295
  • Butchart SHM, Stattersfield AJ, Baillie JEM, Bennun LA, Stuart SN, et al. (2005)Using Red List Indices to measure progress towards the 2010 target and beyondPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 360: 255-268
  • Collen B, Purvis A, & Gittleman JL. (2004)Biological correlates of description date in carnivores and primatesGlobal Ecology and Biogeography, 13: 459-467
  • Butchart SHM, Stattersfield AJ, Bennun LA, Shutes SM, Akçakaya HR, Baillie JEM, et al. (2004) Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: Red List Indices for birdsPLoS Biology, 2: 2294-2304
  • Gärdenfors U, Hilton-Taylor C, Mace G, & Rodríguez JP. (2001) The application of IUCN Red List Criteria at regional levelsConservation Biology, 15: 1206-1212