Camera trapping

Amur tiger in camera trap

A wildlife camera trap is a camera left at a location, rigged so that any approaching wild animal will automatically trigger the shutter release and take one or more photos or video sequences, without the photographer being present. 

The first attempts to do this were made as early as 1877. In 1906, camera trap photos were seen widely for the first time when George Shiras published photos of free-living wildlife in the National Geographic Magazine.

In the early years camera trapping was rather a specialist and limited activity, mainly because the equipment was bulky and difficult to use, involving weighty cameras and arrays of trip wires. But although the equipment was clumsy by modern standards, from the outset images obtained this way were especially attractive for the often candid and relaxed behaviour that was captured.

Why are we camera trapping?

Today camera trapping has been transformed by technology to become a major tool for conservation organisations like ZSL. Miniaturised heat and motion sensors have replaced wires and pressures pads. Invisible infra-red flash units provide night time monchrome images without the startling effect of conventional flash. Very large numbers of high quality digital images can be stored and modern batteries allow these devices to operate unsupervised night and day in remote locations for months at a time. This gives us the opportunity to learn new things about elusive wild animals and some of the problems they face.

The images emerging from these projects are often engaging and useful in their own right, but we also need strong data management systems and robust analytical methods to turn the many 100s of thousands of images generated into scientifically valid conclusions. The development of new analysis tools has not so far kept pace with the potential created by the new technology. ZSL is working to develop the statistical theory behind new methods that make full use of the information emerging from camera trap surveys. We are also developing new software tools that make it easy to manage camera trap data and produce information that is relevant to critical conservation questions.

Key Species

We typically use arrays of camera traps spaced across large areas to assess the distribution and abundance of key species of conservation concern and conduct biodiversity surveys, or to understand the impact of humans on whole animal communities. However, we also sometime target key locations with cameras, such as dens or nest sites, to provide a history of the activity and behaviour of a target species. ZSL is carrying out camera trapping surveys like these across the globe, including projects in Europe, Africa, the Americas, South and South-East Asia and Antarctica, targeting iconic species such as tigers and okapi, as well as a huge range of lesser known wildlife.

Advanced Camera Trapping Technology

At ZSL the Conservation Technology Unit (CTU) has used funding from the Google Impact Award to build the world’s first satellite enabled camera trap for anti-poaching and remote monitoring. ZSL has also developed a unique citizen science project which enables the public to identify and comment on images sent in near real-time by wireless camera traps set up at sites around the world, called Instant Wild.

 

Camera Trapping News

Publications

Rajan Amin, Samuel A. Andanje, Bernard Ogwonka, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew E. Bowkett, Mohamed Omar and Tim Wacher (2014). The northern coastal forests of Kenya are nationally and globally important for the conservation of Aders' duiker Cephalophus adersi and other antelope species.  Biodiversity and Conservation. Biodiversity Conservation. DOI 10.1007/s10531-014-0842-z http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-014-0842-z

Andanje, S.A., Bowkett, A.E., Agwanda, B.R., Ngaruita, G.W., Polwman, A.B., Wacher, T. and Amin, R. (2011) A new population of Critically Endangered Aders’ duiker Cephalophus adersi confirmed from northern coastal Kenya. Oryx, Short Communication, 45(3), 444-447. 
http://www.speciesconservation.org/grant-files/media-coverage/media-cove...

Carbone, C., Christie, S., Coulson, T., Franklin, N., Ginsberg, J.R., Griffiths, M., Holden, J., Kawanishi, K., Kinnaird, M.F., Laidlaw, R., Lynam, A., Macdonald, D.W., Martyr, D., McDougal, C., Nath, L., Obrien, T., Seidensticker, J., Smith, D.J.L., Sunquist, M., Tilson, R. & Wan Shahruddin, W.N. (2001) The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Animal Conservation, 4, 75-79. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid...

Durant, S.M., Craft, M.E., Foley, C., Hampson, K., Lobora, A.L., Msuha, M., Eblate, E., Bukombe, J., McHetto, J. & Pettorelli, N. (2010) Does size matter? An investigation of habitat use across a carnivore assemblage in the Serengeti, Tanzania. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 1012–1022. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01717.x/full

Kays, R., Tilak, S., Crofoot, M., Fountain, T., Obando, D., Ortega, A., Kuemmeth, F., Mandel, J., Swenson, G., Lambert, T., Hirsch1, B. & Wikelski, M. (2011) Tracking animal location and activity with an automated radio telemetry system in a tropical rainforest. The Computer Journal, 54, 1931-1948.

Manzo, E., Bartolommei, P., Rowcliffe, J.M. & Cozzolino, R. (2012) Estimation of population density of European pine marten in Central Italy using camera trapping. Acta Theriologica, 57, 165-172.

McCallum, J.W., Rowcliffe, J.M. & Cuthill, I.C. (2014) Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on terrestrial mammals and humans in four protected areas in Arizona, USA. PloS One, 9, e93679. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.00936...

Msuha, M. J., Carbone, C., Pettorelli, N., & Durant, S. M. (2012). Conserving biodiversity in a changing world: land use change and species richness in northern Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21(11), 2747–2759. doi:10.1007/s10531-012-0331-1.

Pettorelli, N., Lobora, A.L., Msuha, M.J., Foley, C. & Durant, S.M. (2010) Carnivore biodiversity in Tanzania: revealing the distribution patterns of secretive mammals using camera traps. Animal Conservation, 13, 131-139. 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00309.x/full

Rowcliffe, J.M. & Carbone, C. (2008) Surveys using camera traps: are we looking to a brighter future? Animal Conservation, 11, 185-186. 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00180.x/full 

Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Jansen, P.A., Kays, R. & Kranstauber, B. (2011) Quantifying the sensitivity of camera traps: an adapted distance sampling approach. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 464-476. 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00094.x/full

Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Kays, R. & Kranstauber, B. (2014 (in press)) Density estimation using camera trap surveys: the Random Encounter Model. Camera Trapping in Wildlife Research and Management (eds P.D. Meek, A.G. Ballard, P.B. Banks, A.W. Claridge, P.J.S. Fleming, J.G. Sanderson & D.E. Swann). CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Kays, R., Kranstauber, B. & Jansen, P.A. (2012) Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 653-662. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00197.x/abst...
 
Rowcliffe, J.M., Field, J., Turvey, S.T. & Carbone, C. (2008) Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1228-1236. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01473.x/full
 
Rowcliffe, J.M., Kays, R., Carbone, C. & Jansen, P.A. (2013) Clarifying assumptions behind the estimation of animal density from camera trap rates. Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, 876. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jwmg.533/abstract

Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Jansen, P.A., Kays, R. & Kranstauber, B. (2011) Quantifying the sensitivity of camera traps: an adapted distance sampling approach. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 464-476. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00094.x/abst...
 
Rowcliffe, J.M., Kays, R., Kranstauber, B., Carbone, C. & Jansen, P.A. (2014) Quantifying levels of animal activity using camera-trap data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 1170-1179. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2041-210X.12278/abstract

Suselbeek, L., Emsens, W.-J., Hirsch, B.T., Kays, R., Rowcliffe, J.M., Zamora-Gutierrez, V. & Jansen, P.A. (2014) Food acqusition and predator avoidance in a Neotropical rodent. Animal Behaviour, 88, 41-48.

Wearn, O.R., Rowcliffe, M.J., Carbone, C., Bernard, H., Ewers, R,M. (2013) Assessing the Status of Wild Felids in a Highly-Disturbed Commercial Forest Reserve in Borneo and the Implications of Camera Trap Survey Design. PLoS ONE 8(11): e77598.   http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0077598

Camera for trap Instant Wild

Instant Wild

Camera Traps are also used as part of Instant Wild - a major advancement in remote monitoring

People involved:

Raj Amin, Sophie Adwick, Hem Baral, Chris Barichievy, Tek-Raj Bhatt, Gitanjali Bhattacharya, Craig Bruce, Nathan Conaboy, Laura D’Arcy, Sarah Durant, Amy Fitzmaurice, Julien Godfrey, Chris Gordon, Linda Kerley, Paul De’Ornellas, Olivia Needham, Steve Paglia, Oktafa Puspita, Andjar Rafiastanto, Chris Ransom, Vince Smith, Tim Wacher and Carly Waterman. 

Sponsors and Partners:

WWF, Panthera, Kenya Wildlife Service, Saudi Wildlife Authority, Sahara Conservation Fund, Mohamed bin Zayed Conservation Fund and maybe others.

For further information on sponsors and partners, please see the project page.